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of the three principal Substances, Sal, Sulphur, and Mercury 

System (srstem). Also 7-8 systeme, ! 
ai8tem(e. [ad. late L. systetna musical interval 
in mecL or mod.L., the universe, body of th 
articles of faith, a. Gr. avarrjfia organized whole 
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L An organized or connected group of objects. 
1. A set or assemblage of things connected 
associated, or interdependent, so as to form : 
:omplex unity; a whole composed of parts ii 

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the regular systematic] 
1. Physiol, and Path. Belonging to, supplying 

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in every sentence. 1865 Tylor Early Hist. Matt. L 2 
systematic treatise on the subject. 

3. gen. Arranged or conducted according to 
system, plan, or organized method ; involving 
observing a system ; (of a person) acting accordin 
:o system, regular and methodical. 

1790 Burke Rev. France 84 These gentlemen value then 
pelves on being systematic, 1706 — Regie. Peace ii. Wk 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/systemicpaintingOOallo 



SYSTEMIC 
PAINTING 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM. NEW YORK 



Published by The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1966 All Rights Reserved 

Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number: 66-20425 Printed in The Netherlands 



THE SOLOMON It. GUGtiGMIKIM l'Or.MIATION 



TRUSTEES 



HARRY !■". GVGGENHEIM, I'HKSinKNT 



ALBERT !•:. THIELE, VICE PRESIDENT 



II. II. ARNASON, VICK PRESIDENT, ART ADMIMSTKATIO.N 



PETER O. LAWSON-JOHNSTON, VICK PRESIDENT, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 



ELEANOR, COINTESS f'ASTJ.E STEWART 



DANA DRAPER 



A. CHAINCEY XKWI.IX 



MRS, HENRY OBR] 



DANIEL CATTON RICH 



MICHAEL F. WETTACH 



MEDLEY <i. II. WHEI.PLEY 



CAUL ZICROSSKH 



Exhibitions at the Guggenheim Museum in recent years, 
have been concerned most often with the creative con- 
tribution of a single artist. At times, the source, in form 
of an already existing collection, would determine an 
exhibition's scope. Surveys of painting in a particular 
region, or worldwide assessment within a particular 
period have also been held at this museum from time 
to time. The current show avoids all these categories by 
aiming, instead, to isolate a recognizable visual pheno- 
menon and to pursue, in the subsequent catalogue pages, 
its specific meaning. 

The exhibition of "Systemic Painting" has been assem- 
bled by Lawrence Alloway, the Guggenheim Museum's 
curator. 

Thomas M. Messer, Director 



LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 



Steve Schapiro, Brooklyn Heights, Neiv York 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Scull, New York. 

Bykert Gallery, New York 
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 
Galerie Chalette, New York 
Robert Elkon Gallery, New York 
Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York 
Fischbach Gallery, New York 
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York 
Kornblee Gallery, New York 
Pace Gallery, New York 
Park Place Gallery, New York 
Betty Parsons Gallery, New York 
Stephen Radich Gallery, New York 
A. M. Sachs Gallery, Neiv York 
Allan Stone Gallery, New York 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Thanks are due to the Galerie Chalette, Andre Emmerich Gallery, 
Kornblee Gallery, and the Pace Gallery for paying the cost of color plates. 
Mary Grigoriadis worked closely with me on every phase of the exhibition, 
including the preparation of a working bibliography, which was completed 
by Diane Waldman. The catalogue ivas edited by Linda Konheim and 
Susan Tumarkin. I am grateful for their collaboration and support. 

L.A. 



11 



INTRODUCTION 



The painting that made American art famous, done mostly in New York between 
1947 and 1954, first appeared as a drama of creativity. The improvisatory capacity of the artist 
was enlarged and the materiality of media stressed. The process-record of the creative act 
dominated all other possibilities of art and was boosted by Harold Rosenberg's term Action 
Painting. This phrase, though written with de Kooning in mind, was not announced as such, 
and it got stretched to cover new American abstract art in general. The other popular term, 
Abstract Expressionism, shares with "action" a similar over-emphasis on work-procedures, 
defining the work of art as a seismic record of the artist's anxiety. However, within this period, 
there were painters who never fitted the lore of violence that surrounded American art. The 
work of Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, and Mark Rothko was clearly not offering revelatory 
brushwork with autobiographical implications. Not only that, but an artist like Pollock, who 
in his own time, seemed all audacious gesture, appears very differently now. His large drip 
paintings of 1950 have been, as it were, de-gesturized by a few years passing: what once looked 
like impulsive directional tracks have condensed into unitary fields of color. This all-over 
distribution of emphasis and the consequent pulverizing of hierarchic form relates Pollock to 
Still, Newman, and Rothko. 

Meyer Shapiro compared the non-expressionistic, non-gestural painting of Rothko to 
"an all-pervading, as if internalized, sensation of dominant color" 1 . Later H. H. Arnason 
proposed the term Abstract Imagist for those artists who were not expressionist (7)*. This is a 
recognition of the fact that the unity of Action Painting and Abstract Expressionism was purely 
verbal, a product of generalization from incomplete data. (Obviously, any generalizations are 
subject to scepticism, revision, and reversal, but these two terms seem especially perfunctory.) 
It is the "sensational", the "Imagist", painters who have been ratified by the work of younger 
artists. Dissatisfaction with the expressionist bulk of New York painting was expressed by the 
number of young painters who turned away from gestural art or never entered it. Jasper Johns 
targets from 1955, Noland's circles from late 1958, and Stella's symmetrical black paintings of 
1958-59 are, it can now be seen, significant shifts from the directional brushwork and projected 
anxiety of the Expressionists. Rauschenberg's twin paintings. Factum I and Factum II, 1957, 
along with duplicated photographs, included almost identical paint splashes and trickles, an 
ironic and loaded image. A gestural mark was turned into a repeatable object. The changing 
situation can be well indicated by the opinions of William Rubin six years ago : he not only 
deplored "the poor quality of 'de Kooning style painting' ", he also assumed the failure of de 
Kooning himself and praised Clement Greenberg's "prophetic insight" in foreseeing the 
expressionist cul-de-sac (3). It is symptomatic that three years later Ben Heller stated, "the 
widespread interest in de Kooning's ideas has been more of a hindrance than a help to the 
younger artists" (14). In fact, it was now possible for Heller to refer to "the post-de Kooning 
world" (my italics). In the late 50's de Kooning's example was oppressively accepted and 
alternatives to it were only fragmentarily visible. There was, 1. the work of the older Field 
painters, 2. the development of stained as opposed to brushed techniques (Pollock 1951. 
Frankenthaler 1952. Louis 1954), and, 3. the mounting interest in symmetrical as opposed to 
amorphous formats, clear color as opposed to dirty, hard edges as opposed to dragged ones. 

* Numbers in parentheses refer to the bibliography. 



12 




Barnett Newman. EVE. 1950. Oil on canvas, 96 x 68". 




•^*5- 



Barnett Newman's paintings have 
hail two different audiences: first the com- 
pact group of admirers of his exhibitions in 
New York in 1950 and 1951. Second, the 
large audience of the later 50's, with the shift 
of sensibility away from gestural art. As with 
any artist who is called "ahead of his time" 
he has a complex relation with subsequent 
history. On the one hand he has created his 
own audience and influenced younger artists ; 
on the other hand, his art was waited for. 
There was talk and speculation about New- 
man even among artists who had not seen 
his work. New : man asserted the wholistic 
character of painting with a rigour previously 
unknown; his paintings could not be seen 
or analyzed in terms of small parts. There 
are no subdivisions or placement problems; 
the total field is the unit of meaning. The 
expressionist element in Still (who signed 
himself Clyfford in emulation of the Vincent 
signature of Van Gogh) and the seductive 
air of Rothko, despite their sense of space 
as field, meant less to a new generation of 
artists than Newman's even but not polished, 
brushed but not ostentatious, paint surface. 
In addition, the narrow canvases he painted 
in 1951. a few inches wide and closely related 
in height to a man's size, prefigure the de- 
velopment of the shaped canvas ten years 
later. Greenberg, considering the structural 
principles of Newman's painting in the ab- 
sence of internal divisions and the interplay 
of contrasted forms, suggested that his ver- 
tical bands are a "parody" of the frame. 
"Newman's picture becomes all frame in it- 
self", because "the picture edge is repeated 
inside, and makes the picture instead of 
merely being echoed'' 2 . This idea was later 
blowm up by Michael Fried into deductive 
structure (40) and applied to Frank Stella's 
paintings in which the stretcher, as a whole, 
not just the sides, sets the limits for the de- 
velopment of the surface 3 . Although this idea 
is not central to the paintings of Newman, it 
is indicative of his continuous presence on 
the scene in the 60's that a proposed es- 
thetic should rest, at least partially, on his 
work. 



Barnett Newman Exhibition, Betty Parsons Gallery, 1951. Left original plaster cast at Here, right The Wild, 1950. 



13 



X~ 




^^J"4. 



Alternatives to Abstract Expres- 
sionism were not easily come by in the 50's 
and had to be formulated experimentally by 
artists on their own. Leon Smith, who had 
already suppressed modelling and textural 
variation in his painting, studied in 1954, 
the stitching patterns on drawings of tennis 
balls, footballs, and basketballs. These im- 
ages laid the foundations of his continuous, 
flowing space, both in tondos, close to the 
original balls, and transferred to rectangular 
canvases. In France, Ellsworth Kelly made 
a series of panel paintings, in which each 
panel carried a single solid color. There is 
an echo of Neo-plastic pinks and blues in his 
palette, but his rejection of visual variation 
or contrast was drastically fresh, at the time, 
1952-53. Ad Reinhardt, after 1952 painted 
all red and all blue pictures on a strictly 
symmetrical lay-out, combining elements 
from early 20th century geometric art and 
mid-century Field painting (saturated or 
close- valued color). These three artists de- 
monstrate an unexpected reconciliation of 
geometric art, as structural precision, and 
recent American painting, as colorist inten- 
sity. They showed at Betty Parsons Gallery 
and her adjunct Section Eleven, 1958-61, 
along with Alexander Liberman, Agnes Mar- 
tin, and Sidney Wolfson. It is to this phase 
of non-expressionistic New York painting 
that the term Hard Edge applies. "The 
phrase 'hard-edge' is an invention of the Ca- 
lifornia critic, Jules Langsner, who suggested 



Leon Smith. Drawing 
1954. 8i x 3f. 



Pencil and ink on cardboard, 






Ellsworth Kelly. Red Yellow Black W r hites Blues. 1953. Synthetic paint on canvas. 7 panels, each 41 i x 22* 



14 



it at a gathering in Claremont in 1959 as a title for an exhibition of four non-figurative Cali- 
fornia painters" 4 records George Rickey. In fact. Langsner originally intended the term to refer 
to geometric abstract art in general, because of the ambiguity of the term "geometric", as he told 
me in conversation in 1958. Incidentally, the exhibition Rickey refers to was called eventuallv 
Four Abstract Classicists. The purpose of the term, as I used it 1959-60, was to refer to the 
new development which combined economy of form and neatness of surface with fullness of 
color, without continually raising memories of earlier geometric art. It was a way of stressing 
the wholistic properties of both the big asymmetrical shapes of Smith and Kelly and the 
symmetrical layouts of Liberman and Martin. 

Hard Edge was defined in opposition to geometric art. in the following way. "The 
'cone, cylinder, and sphere' of Cezanne-fame have persisted in much 20th century painting. 
Even where these forms are not purely represented, abstract artists have tended toward a 
compilation of separable elements. Form has been treated as discrete entities", whereas "forms 
are few in hard-edge and the surface immaculate . . . The whole picture becomes the unit: forms 
extend the length of the painting or are restricted to two or three tones. The result of this 
sparseness is that the spatial effect of figures on a field is avoided" (5). This wholistic organization 
is the difference that Field Painting had made to the formal resources of geometric art 5 . The 
fundamental article on this phase of the development of systemic painting is Sidney Tillim"s 
early "W hat Happened to Geometry?", in which he formulated the situation in terms of 
geometric art "in the shadow of abstract expressionism" (2). 

The emerging non-expressionist tendencies were often complimented as Timeless 
Form's latest embodiment, as in the West Coast group of Abstract Classicists. Jules Langsner 
defined Abstract Classicism as form that is "defined, explicit, ponderable, rather than ambigu- 
ous or fuzzily suggestive", and equated this description with the "enduring principles of 
Classicism" 6 . It is a tribute to the prestige of the Expressionist-Action cluster of ideas that it 
was assumed any artist who did not belong there must, of necessity, be a classicist. Langsner 
wrote in 1959 but, as late as 1964, E. C. Goossen could refer, when discussing symmetry, to its 
"underlying classical conventions" (86). \^ hereas Mondrian and Malewitch. in the formative 
period of their ideas, believed in absolute formal standards, of the kind a definition of Classicism 
requires. American artists had more alternatives. The 1903-13 generation, by stressing the 
existential presence of the artist in his work, had sealed off the strategies of impersonality and 
timelessness by which earlier artists had defined and defended their work. Now. because of the 
intervening generation of exploratory artists, the systematic and the patient could be regarded 
as no less idiosyncratic and human than the gestural and cathartic. Only defenders of the idea 
of classicism in modern life resisted this idea of the arbitrariness of the systemic. 

Alexander Liberman 
produced paintings in which the 
immaculate finish associated 
with international geometric art 
was taken up to a physical scale 
and fullness comparable to the 
work of the 1903-13 generation 
of Americans. The completeness 
of symmetry, in his paintings of 
1950. the random activation of 
a field without gestural traces in 
1953. are remarkably early. A 
symmetrical and immaculate 
painting of his was seen at the 
Guggenheim Museum in 1951. 
where its total absence of touch 
was remarked on by, among 




Alexander Liberman. Diptych. One 11 ay. L950. . 4i x 80". 




Alexander Liberman. 639. 1959. 49i x 98s 



others, Johns and Rauschenberg. Several of Liberman's paintings of this period were designed 
by him and executed by workmen, an anticipation of much later practice. Here is a real link with 
Malewitch, incidentally, though not one likely to have occured to Liberman at the time; in Male- 
witch's book The Non-Objective World, his Suprematist compositions are rendered by pencil 
drawings, not by reproductions of paintings. The conceptual act of the artist, that is to say, 
not his physical engagement with a medium, is the central issue. Ad Reinhardt, after working 
as a traditional geometric artist, began his symmetrical, one-color paintings in 1953, which 
darkened progressively through the 50's, culminating in 1960 in the series of identical black 
squares. His numerous statements, dramatic but flamboyant, in catalogues or even in Action 
Painting-oriented Art News, were well known. "No accidents or automatism"; "Everything, 
where to begin and where to end, should be worked out in the mind beforehand" ; "No symbols, 
images, or signs" 7 are characteristic, and prophetic (the date is 1957). 

It is not necessary to believe in the historical succession of styles, one irrevocably 
displacing its predecessor, to see that a shift of sensibility had occurred. In the most extreme 
view, this shift destroyed gestural painting; in a less radical view, it at least expanded artists' 
possible choices in mid-century New York, restoring multiplicity. Newman's celebrated ex- 
hibition at Bennington College in 1958 was repeated in New York the following year, and the 
echoes of his work were immense. In 1960 Noland's circles which had been somewhat gestural 
in handling, became more tight and, as a result, the dyed color became disembodied, without 
hints of modelling or textural variation. Stella's series of copper paintings in 1961 were far more 
elaborately shaped than the notched paintings of the preceeding year; now the stretchers were 
like huge initial letters. In 1962 Poons painted his first paintings in which fields of color were 
inflected by small discs of color; Noland painted his first chevrons, in which the edges of the 
canvas, as well as the center, which had been stressed in the circles, became structurally 
important; and Downing, influenced he has said by Noland. painted his grids of two-color dots. 
In 1963 Stella produced his series of elaborately cut-out purple paintings and Neil \S illiams 
made his series of saw-tooth edged shaped-canvases. Other examples could be cited, but 
enough is recorded to show the momentum and diversity of the new sensibility. 

A series of museum exhibitions reveals an increasing self-awareness among the artists 
which made possible group appearances and public recognition of the changed sensibility. The 
first of these exhibitions was Toward a New Abstraction (The Jewish Museum, Summer 1963) 
in which Ben Heller proposed, as a central characteristic of the artists, "a conceptual approach 
to painting" (14). In the following year there was Post Painterly Abstraction (The Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, Spring) in which Clement Greenberg proposed that the artists included 
in the show revealed a "move towards a physical openness of design, or towards linear clarity, 
or towards both" (23a). Heller and Creenberg, the former no doubt affected by Greenberg's 
earlier writing, were anti-expressionist. In the fall of 1964 The Hudson River Museum put on 
a significant though at the time little noticed exhibition of 8 Young Artists* among them 
Robert Barry and Robert Huot. E. C. Goossen described the group characteristics as follows: 



16 



"none of them employs illusion, realism, or anything that could possibly be described as 
symbolism" and stressed the artists' "concern with conceptual order" (28). Noland occupied 
half the U.S. Pavillion at the Venice Biennale in 1964 and had a near retrospective at The 
Jewish Museum in the following year. In the summer of 1965 the Washington Gallery of 
Modern Art presented The Washington Color Painters, which included Noland. Downing and 
Mehring. Finally, in the spring, 1966 The Jewish Museum put on a sculpture exhibition. 
Primary Structures 9 . This list of museum exhibitions shows that critical and public interest 
in the early 60's had left Abstract Expressionism, and the main area of abstract art on which 
it now concentrated can be identified with Clement Greenberg's esthetics. 

Greenberg's Post Painterly Abstraction was notable as a consolidation of the null- 
expressionist tendencies so open in this critic's later work. He sought an historical logic for 
"clarity and openness" in painting by taking the cyclic theory 7 of W olfflin, according to which 
painterly and linear styles alternate in cycles. Translated into present requirements, Abstract 
Expressionism figures as painterly, now degenerated into mannerism, and more recent develop- 
ments are equated with the linear. These criteria are so permissive as to absorb Frankenthaler's 
and Olitski's free-form improvisation and atmospheric color, on the one hand, and Feeley's and 
Stella's uninflected systemic painting as well. It is all Post Painterly Abstraction, a term 
certainly adapted from Roger Fry's Post-Impressionism, which similarly lumped together 
painters as antithetical as Van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat. and Cezanne. The core of Post Painterly 
Abstraction is a technical procedure, the staining of canvas to obtain color uninterrupted by 
pressures of the hand or the operational limits of brush work. Poured paint exists purely as 
color, "freed" of drawing and modelling; hence the term Color Painting for stain painting g . 
It is characteristic of criticism preoccupied with formal matters that it should give a movement 
a name derived from a technical constituent. The question arises : are other, less narrow, descrip- 
tions of post-expressionist art possible than that proposed by Greenberg? It is important to go 
into this because his influence is extensive, unlike that of Harold Rosenberg (associated with 
Action Painting), but there is a ceiling to Greenberg's esthetic which must be faced. 

The basic text in Greenberg-influenced criticism is an article, written after the publica- 
tion of Art and Culture, but on which the essays in his book rest, called "Modernist Painting" 10 . 
Here he argues for self-criticism within each art. "through the procedures themselves of that 
which is being criticized". Thus "flatness, two-dimensionality, was the only condition shared 
with no other art, and so modernist painting oriented itself to flatness". This idea has been 
elaborated by Michael Fried as a concentration on "problems intrinsic to painting itself" (40). 
This idea of art's autonomy descends from 19th-century estheticism. "As the laws of their Art 
were revealed to them (artists), they saw, in the development of their work, that real beauty 
which, to them, was as much a matter of certainty and triumph as is to the astronomer the 
verification of the result, foreseen with the light given to him alone" 11 . Here Whistler states 
clearly the idea of medium purity as operational self-criticism, on which American formalist art 
criticism still rests. Whistler typifies the first of three phases of art for art's sake theory: first, 
the precious and, at the time, highly original estheticism of W alter Pater, W lustier, and W ilde; 
second, a classicizing of this view in the early 20th century, especially by Roger Fry, stressing 
form and plasticity with a new sobriety; and, third, Greenberg's zeal for flatness and color, with 
a corresponding neglect of non-physiognomic elements in art. 

W hat is missing from the formalist approach to painting is a serious desire to study 
meanings beyond the purely visual configuration. Consider the following opinions, all of them 
formalist-hased. which acknowledge or suppose the existence of meanings feelings. Ben Heller 
writes that Noland "has created not only an optical but an expressive art" (14) ami Michael 
Fried calls Noland's paintings "powerful emotional statements" (40). However, neither writer 
indicated what was expressed nor what emotions might be stated. Alan Solomon has written of 



17 



Noland's circles, which earlier he had called "targets" (14) : "some are buoyant and cheerful . . . 
others are sombre, brooding, tense, introspective" (228), but this "sometimes-I'm happy, 
sometimes-I'm blue" interpretation is less than one hopes for. It amounts to a reading of color 
and concentric density as symbols of emotional states, which takes us back to the early 20th- 
century belief in emotional transmission by color-coding. 

According to Greenberg the Hard-Edge artists in his Post Painterly Abstraction 
exhibition "are included because they have won their 'hardness' from the softness of Painterly 
Abstraction" (23a). It is certainly true that "a good part of the reaction against Abstract Expres- 
sionism is... a continuation of it", but to say of the artists, "they have not inherited it (the 
hard edge) from Mondrian, the Bauhaus, Suprematism. or anything that came before", is 
exaggerating. Since Greenberg believes in evolutionary ideas, and his proposal that Hard-Edge 
artists come out of gestural ones shows that he does, it is unreasonable to sever the later artists 
from the renewed contact with geometric abstract art which clearly exists. If we omit Green- 
berg's improvisatory painters, such as Francis, Frankenthaler, Louis, and Olitski, and attend 
to the more systemic artists, there are definite connections to earlier geometric art. Kelly, 
Smith, and Poons had roots in earlier geometric art, for example, and it is hard to isolate 
modular painting in New York from international abstract art. What seems relevant now is to 
define systems in art, free of classicism, which is to say free of the absolutes which were 
previously associated with ideas of order. Thus, the status of order as human proposals rather 
than as the echo of fundamental principles, is part of the legacy of the 1903-1915 generation. 
Their emphasis on the artist as a human being at work, however much it led, in one direction 
to autobiographical gestures, lessened the prestige of art as a mirror of the absolute. Malewitch, 
Kandinsky, and Mondrian, in different ways, universalized their art by theory, but in New York 
there is little reliance on Platonic or Pythagorian mysteries. A system is as human as a splash 
of paint, more so when the splash gets routinized. 

Definitions of art as an object, in relation to geometric art, have too often consolidated 
it within the web of formal relations. The internal structure, purified of all reference, became 
the essence of art. The object quality of art is stressed in shaped canvas paintings, but without a 
corresponding appeal to idealism. When the traditional rectangle is bitten into or thrust out- 
wards, the spectator obviously has an increased consciousness of the ambience. The wall may 
appear at the center of the painting or intersect the painted surface. Despite the environmental 
space of the shaped canvas, however, it has also a great internal solidity, usually emphasized by 
thick stretchers (Stella, Williams). The bulk of the painting is physical and awkward, not a pure 
essence of art. On the contrary, the contoured edges are highly ambiguous: the balance of 
internal and outside space is kept in suspense so that there are connections with painting (color), 
sculpture (real volume and shaping), and craft (the basic carpentry). Shaped canvases tend to 
mix these possibilities. Another non-formal approach is indicated by Robert Smithson's 
reaction to Stella's "impure-purist surface", especially the purple, green, and silver series: 
"like Mallarme's Herodiade, these surfaces disclose a 'cold scintillation' ; they seem to 'love 
the horror of being virgin' " (60). Mallarme is being quoted, not to take possession of the work in 
literary terms, but to indicate experiences beyond the eyeball. It is a reminder that shaped 
blocks of one color have the power of touching emotion and memory at the same time that they 
are being seen. 

Stella's recent paintings (started in the fall of 1965 from drawings made in 1962) are 
asymmetrical and multi-colored, compared to the symmetrical and/or one-color paintings done 
since 1958. The change is not a move to a world full of possibilities from one that was con- 
stricted. Simplicity is as sustaining in art as elaboration. It is more probable that the new work 
is prompted aggressively, as a renewal of the problematic, for the style change came at a time 
when an esthetic for minimal, cool, or ABC art (to which his earlier work is central), was out in 



18 



the open. The new paintings are a kind of two-level image, with the contoured stretcher pro- 
viding one kind of definition and the painted forms, cued by the stretcher but not bound to it, 
making another. Color is bounded by painted bands or by the edge of the canvas, which has the 
effect of scrambling the spatial levels of the painting. This act of superposition disregards the 
idea of deductive structure which Michael Fried proposed as the present historical necessity of 
"modernist" painting in which the painted image is obedient to the shape of the perimeter. Each 
of Stella's new shaped canvases exists in four permutations, with alternate colors though with 
fixed boundaries. 

Kenneth Noland painted a series of square canvases in 1964, a shape that is more in 
use now than at any other time in the 20th century. Presumably its non-directional character, 
with neither east-west nor north-south axes, accounts for its currency. However, Noland, who 
laid in bars of color parallel to the sides of his squares, was oppressed by the sense of the edge. 
For this reason he turned the squares 45°, making them diamonds; this led him to the long 
diamond format, of which one is in the present exhibition. The points of the diamond are the 
farthest points from the center, a format which frees Noland from his sense of confinement by 
the edge. The edge is reduced to a functional oblique, linking the most distant parts of the 
painting. Thus, the diamond format is not so much a shaped canvas, with consequent connec- 
tions to the pictorial and to the object-like, but the discovery of a format highly suited to the 
"disembodied" color effects of staining. 

The essentializing moves made by Newman to reduce the formal complexity of the 
elements in painting to large areas of a single color, have an extraordinary importance. The 
paintings are a saddle-point between art predicated on expression and art as an object. New- 
man's recently completed Stations of the Cross represent both levels: the theme is the Passion 
of Christ, but each Station is apparently non-iconographical, a strict minimal statement. Levels 
of reference and display, present in all art, are presented not in easy partnership but almost 
antagonistically. When we view art as an object we view it in opposition to the process of 
signification. Meaning follows from the presence of the work of art, not from its capacity to 
signify absent events or values (a landscape, the Passion, or whatever). This does not mean we 
are faced with an art of nothingness or boredom as has been said with boring frequency. On the 
contrary, it suggests that the experience of meaning has to be sought in other ways. 

First is the fact that paintings, such as those in this exhibition are not, as has been 
often claimed, impersonal. The personal is not expunged by using a neat technique; anonymity 
is not a consequence of highly finishing a painting. The artist's conceptual order is just as 
personal as autographic tracks. Marcel Duchamp reduced the creative act to choice and we may 
consider this its irreducible personal requirement. Choice sets the limits of the system, regard- 
less of how much or how little manual evidence is carried by the painting. Second is the fact 
that formal complexity is not an index of richness of content. "I am using the same basic 
composition over and over again", Howard Mehring has said, "I never seem to exhaust its 
possibilities" (218). A third related point is that most of the artists in this exhibition work in 
runs, groups, or periods. The work that constitutes such runs or periods is often less outwardly 
diverse than, say, the work of other artists' periods. 

A possible term for the repeated use of a configuration is One Image art (noting that 
legible repetition requires a fairly simple form). Examples are Noland's chevrons, Downing's 
grids, Feeley's quatrefoils, and Reinhardt's crosses. The artist who uses a given form begins each 
painting further along, deeper into the process, than an expressionist, who is, in theory at least, 
lost in each beginning; all the One Image artist has to have done is to have painted his earlier 
work. One Image art abolishes the lingering notion of History Painting that invention is the 



19 



test of the artist. Here form becomes meaningful, not because of ingenuity or surprise, but 
because of repetition and extension. The recurrent image is subject to continuous transforma- 
tion, destruction and reconstruction ; it requires to be read in time as well as in space. In style 
analysis we look for unity within variety; in One Image art we look for variety within con- 
spicuous unity. The run of the image constitutes a system, with limits set up by the artist him- 
self, which we learn empirically by seeing enough of the work. Thus the system is the means by 
which we approach the work of art. When a work of art is defined as an object we clearly stress 
its materiality and factualness, but its repetition, on this basis, returns meaning to the syntax. 
Possibly, therefore, the evasiveness about meaning in Noland already mentioned, may have to 
do with the expectation that a meaning is complete in each single painting rather than located 
over a run or a set. 

The application of the term systemic to One Image painting is obvious, but, in fact, 
it is applied more widely here. It refers to paintings which consist of a single field of color, or 
to groups of such paintings. Paintings based on modules are included, with the grid either 
contained in a rectangle or expanding to take in parts of the surrounding space (Gourfain and 
Insley respectively). It refers to painters who work in a much freer manner, but who end up 
with either a wholistic area or a reduced number of colors (Held and Youngerman respec- 
tively). The field and the module (with its serial potential as an extendable grid) have in 
common a level of organization that precludes breaking the system. This organization does not 
function as the invisible servicing of the work of art, but is the visible skin. It is not, that is to 
say, an underlying composition, but a factual display. In all these works, the end-state of the 
painting is known prior to completion (unlike the theory of Abstract Expressionism). This does 
not exclude empirical modifications of a work in progress, but it does focus them within a 
system. A system is an organized whole, the parts of which demonstrate some regularities. 
A system is not antithetical to the values suggested by such art world word-clusters as humanist, 
organic, and process. On the contrary, while the artist is engaged with it, a system is a process ; 
trial and error, instead of being incorporated into the painting, occur off the canvas. The 
predictive power of the artist, minimized by the prestige of gestural painting, is strongly 
operative, from ideas and early sketches, to the ordering of exactly scaled and shaped stretchers 
and help by assistants. 

The spread of Pop Art in the 60's coincides with the development of systemic abstract 
painting and there are parallels. Frank Stella's paintings, with their bilateral symmetry, have 
as much in common with Johns' targets as with Reinhardt and, if this is so, his early work can 
be compared to Yves Klein's monochromes, which were intentionally problematic. The question 
"what is art?" is raised more than the question, "is this a good example of art?" This skeptical 
undercurrent of Stella's art, in which logic and doubt cohabit, is analogous to those aspects 
of Pop Art which are concerned with problems of signification. Lichtenstein's pointillism and 
Warhol's repetitive imagery, is more like systemic art in its lack of formal diversity than it is like 
other styles of 20th century art. A lack of interest in gestural handling marks both this area of 
Pop Art and systemic abstract art. In addition, there are artists who have made a move to 
introduce pop references into the bare halls of abstract art theory. One way to do this is by using 
color in such a way that it retains a residue of environmental echoes ; commercial and industrial 
paint and finishes can be used in this way. For example, Al Brunelle has written of this painting 
in the present exhibition: "Jayne has a blue edge on the left, superimposed upon the under- 
lying scheme. On this side she does not silhouette as brightly as on the right, nor do the edges 
on left 'track' as they do so nicely within the painting. The blue line does not remedy any of 
this. It has a function similar to eyeliner" 12 . The reference to eyeliner, combined with the 



20 



"cobra skin" finish, the crystals, and the pink plastic surfaces, raises an association of pop 
culture that is hard to shake. 

Irving Sandler's term for systemic painting, both abstract and pop, is "Cool- Art" (36), 
as characterized by calculation, impersonality, and boredom. "An art as negative as Stella's 
cannot but convey utter futility and boredom" ; he considers conceptual art as merely "mecha- 
nistic". \S hat Sandler has done is to take the Abstract Classicist label and then attack it like a 
Romantic, or at least a supporter of Abstract Expressionist art, should. He is against "one-shot 
art" because of his requirement of good artists: "they have to grope". This quotation is from 
a catalogue of Concrete Expressionism, his term for a group of painters including Al Held. He 
argues that theirs is struggle painting, like expressionism, but that their forms are "disassoci- 
ated", his term for non-relational. Thus Sandler locates an energy and power in their work said 
to be missing from hollow and easy "Cool-Art "'. The difference between so-called Concrete 
Expressionist and Abstract Expressionist paintings, however, is significant; they are flatter and 
smoother. Al Held's pictures are thick and encrusted with reworkings, but he ends up with a 
relatively clear and hard surface. The shift of sensibility, which this exhibition records, is 
evident in his work. Held may regard his paintings as big forms, but when the background is 
only a notch at the picture's margin, he is virtually dealing with fields. 

The pressing problem of art criticism now is to re-establish abstract art's connections 
with other experience without, of course, abandoning the now general sense of art's autonomy. 
One way is by the repetition of images, which without preassigned meanings become the record 
and monument of the artist. Another way is by the retention of known iconography, in however 
abbreviated or elliptical form. Priscilla Colt, referring to Ad Reinhardt's basic cross noted: "In 
earlier paintings it assumed the elongated proportions of the crucifix; in the black squares the 
pointedness of the reference is diminished, since the arms are equal, but it remains". Miss Colt 
also notes the expressive connotations of Reinhardt's "pushing of the visible toward the brink 
of the invisible" 13 . Noland's circles, whatever he may have intended, never effaced our knowl- 
edge, built-in and natural by now, of circular systems of various types. Circles have an iconog- 
raphy; images become motives with histories. The presence of covert or spontaneous iconog- 
raphic images is basic to abstract art, rather than the purity and pictorial autonomy so often 
ascribed to it. The approach of formalist critics splits the work of art into separate elements, 
isolating the syntax from all its echoes and consequences. The exercise of formal analysis, at the 
expense of other properties of art, might be called formalistic positivism 14 . Formal analysis 
needs the iconographical and experiential aspects, too, which can no longer be dismissed 
as "literary" except on the basis of an archaic estheticism. 

Lawrence Alloway 



21 



\OTE« 



1. Meyer Shapiro. "The \ounger American Painters of Today", The Listener, London, no. 1404, January 26, 
1956, pp. 146^7. 

2. Clement Greenberg. "American-type Painting", Art and Culture, Boston, Beacon Press 1961, pp. 208-29. 

3. Deductive structure is the verbal echo and opposite of what William Rubin called "'inductive' or indirect 
painting" (3), but the phrase (which meant painting without a brush) never caught on. 

4. George Rickey. "The New Tendency (Nouvelle Tendence Recherche Continuelle)", Art Journal, New 
York, vol. XXIII, no. 4, Summer 1964, p. 272. 

5. The formal difference between wholistic and hierarchic form is often described as "relational" and "non- 
relational". Relational refers to paintings like that of the earlier geometric artists which are subdivided and 
balanced with a hierarchy of forms, large-medium-small. Non-relational, on the contrary, refers to un- 
modulated monochromes, completely symmetrical layouts, or unaccented grids. In fact, of course, relation- 
ships (the mode in which one thing stands to another or two or more things to one another) persist, even 
when the relations are those of continuity and repetition rather than of contrast and interplay. 

(For more information on Hard-Edge see John Coplans : "John McLaughlin, Hard Edge, and American 
Painting") Artforum, San Francisco, vol. II, no. 7, January 1964, pp. 28-31. 

6. The Los Angeles County Museum, July 1959, Four Abstract Classicists. Text by Jules Langsner. 

7. Ad Reinhardt. "Twelve Rules for a New Academy", Art News, New York, vol. 56, no. 3, May 1957, 
pp. 37-38, 56. 

8. When the present exhibition was proposed originally in June 1964 it was intended to show painting and 
sculpture, but Primary Structures covered the ground too closely to repeat it. The reasons for planning to 
show flat and 3D work are (1) analogies between work in both media and (2) the number of artists who 
combine the technology of one with the formal characteristics of the other. The shaped canvases in this 
exhibition are those with lateral variations rather than with volumetric projections; that is to say, closer 
to painting. 

9. Optical has, at present, two meanings in art criticism. In Greenberg's esthetics color is optical if it creates a 
purely visual and non-tactile space. It is one of the properties of "Color" Painting, the term Greenberg 
applied to Louis and Noland in 1960 (which has been widely used, including adaptations of it such as 
W illiam Seitz's "Color Image"). It is curious, since color is mandatory for all painting, that one way of 
using it should be canonized. The other meaning of optical, and its best known usage, is as the optical 
in Op Art, meaning art that shifts during the spectator's act of perception. 

10. Clement Greenberg. "Modernist Painting", Arts Yearbook 4, New York, 1961, pp. 101-108. 

11. James A. McNeill Whistler. Ten O'Clock, Portland, Maine, Thomas Bird Mosher, 1925. 

12. Unpublished statement by the artist, 1966. 

13. Priscilla Colt. "Notes on Ad Reinhardt", Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 8, October 20, 1964, 
pp. 32-34. 

14. Adapted from Leo Spitzer's "imagistic positivism" by which he deplored literary critics' overemphasis on 
imagery at the expense of a poem as a whole. 



STATEMENTS 



JO BAER 



23 



These paintings form part of a series of twelve. There are 
four colors in the .series: blue, green, purple, yellow. 
There are also four sizes and shapes : large squares, small 
squares, vertical rectangles, horizontal rectangles. Each 
particular size and shape needs particular properties of 
color: intense, or pale, or grayed, or bright. The possibili. 
ties for combination or grouping of the paintings are the 
permutations of twelve (831,753,600) or whatever set 
factors are chosen. The paintings here are the three large 
squares and they use the intense color bands. All the 
paintings are color in a luminous mode, but this group 
also renders the primary colors of light: a red (magenta), 
a green, a blue. They are each constructed equivalent to 
one another as a color presence. 

Summer, 1966 



DEA\ FLElIIXft 

I am working in the area of the totally primal and 
available. 

Geometry, optics, science and psychology are here used 
only as tools and, therefore, have only a relative bearing 
on the significance of the work. 

The dominant subject of the painting is its effect on each 
individual observer. In the case of these immediate 
paintings I have limited the relationships to only the 
most primary and intense. 

In an effort to clarify the subject I have used only straight 
lines. 

Most of these paintings can objectively be defined by 
saying that they are composed of one or two points within 
the canvas and the connection of these points to the 
outer edges. 

This approach to the work yields nothing whatsoever and 
we must venture further to reach significant under- 
standing. 

The situation is one of polar contrasts and their inevitable 
interchange of space; the aggression or recession of a 
color, the ability of a single color to change in terms of 
dark and light, the redness and blueness when related to 
another color. 



I use color because of its relativity to the human eye and 
believe in color and not color dogma. 
Formally they contain the tensions and lucid changes that 
exist between the diagonal and the horizontal and vertical. 
We are already aware of the passivity of the horizontal, 
the ascension and descension of the vertical, and the 
dynamics of the diagonal. 

I am using these things as tools to evoke like states in the 
receiver. 

The effectiveness of the painting can be facilitated by the 
ability of the observer to be free of references and 
attitudes. 

Like music, this work can be best received in silence. 
Blue, red, black, white and yellow have natures of their 
own which vary according to the receptivity of each ob- 
server and must be absorbed according to the individual 
rhythm and time-grasp of each person concerned. 
These can be a way of understanding yourself in a primal 
position. 

The painting must transcend its materiality both as a 
canvas and in the viewer's eye. 

If an open viewer allows the reading to be in his own time 
he can begin to receive an experience which separates 
from the work he sees and he can participate in the 
reversals of space and the apparent contradictions be- 
tween stillness and sudden motion, weight and gravita- 
tionlessness. 

A deeply experienced participation with the work can 
yeild a sense of transcension and can create an intense 
light which contains no color. 

January 1965 



The subject of art is ultimately spiritual. That vibrant 
aspect of the nature of existence which demands to be 
created though it is not called for. Still this new work is 
utilitarian in that it serves to extend the consciousness of 
space and time, a necessity for the psychic survival of 
every new society. Now, when basic forms and primary 
colors have the strength and velocity to communicate 
a new dimension, it is the spirit of our times an artist 
expresses rather than the fact. 

1966 



24 



WILL I\SLL1 



I \l»\ \UI KCKATAMA 



NOTEBOOK EXCERPTS 

Physical Engineering — practical function — bridge or 

building 

Visual Engineering — only visual function — art 

Grid — select — vary 

freedom within law- 
Form perceived in most basic sense as flat shape 

Silhouette 

Object motivated by surrounding space 

Diagram of visual forces 

Form movement parallel to the eye plane 

Color movement perpendicular to the eye plane 

Resultant conflict — visual experience 

transcends physical limitations of the material 

Physical structure a support for the visual experience 
the reality of the work of art 

Flat visual object 

The painting is an object. Any attempt to consider 
the painting as a field or space in which other objects 
appear to exist is avoiding the issue of historical neces- 
sity today. The painting is the object itself and exists 
in the space of the viewer. 

Problem — devise structural form system 

Future of art lies in mass production 

Objects capable of economic repetition 

Simple units — stock material 

Grid space — select the necessary 

1964 



Painting — the diagramed object 

Abandon historical rectilinear context of contained 

illusion 

Extend into actual surrounding space 

to motivate and be motivated 

Fragment of flat visual material 

Problem clarified and reduced 

Possibilities diminish 

Particular color seems less and less important 

Color a material coating 

visual extension to base material object 
Reduce painting to flat silhouette 
Expose to most stringent test 

proportion of elements 

relation of closed and open spaces 
Only basic relationships withstand observation 
Emotional and seductive icing of historical cake removed 
Painting becomes wall — wall becomes environment 
Systematic relationship of measured elements 

calculated to project visual force beyond material thing 
Grid space — select the necessary 

1966 



Ideas, thoughts, philosophy, reasons, meanings, even the 
humanity of the artist, do not enter into my work at all. 
There is only the art itself. That is all. 

1964 



DAVID III 

EXCERPTS FROM STATEMENT 
3 

1 am tempted to distinguish three stages in the recent 
history of painting or if you prefer, which I fear is nn 
likely, three attitudes toward decoration. Image. Object. 
Environment. By image I refer to the framed illustrations 
which used to be so prevalent and whose dimensions 
seemed more the result of convienience than any art. The 
second stage corresponds to those paintings, occasionally 
resembling a familiar object, often abstract, often very 
large, and usually unframed, whose content, at least in 
the most famous examples, is precisely equivalent in 
spirit and in fact to its dimensions. One hopes no more 
will be said of cubism. 

I would like to say of the third, the environmental stage 
that these paintings have no beginning and no end, but 
despite our wishful thinking paintings don't naturally 
exist in time. Perhaps they have no middle. They exhibit 
a penchant for presenting materials factually and for 
employing a numerical set as something signifying 
nothing but itself. The content of these paintings is a 
certain quantity, an accumulation, and they are some- 
times quite witless. Their distinction, and their vulner- 
ability, is that they don't exist except on a wall, at best on 
a particular wall, the wall for which they were designed, 
often no other wall than the painter's own. 
Like most labor-saving devices, the reduction of a pain- 
ter's aesthetic choices to what sets and how fine a series is 
spiritualizing. Unfortunately an effect of employing labor- 
saving devices is that people get out of the habit of 
working, in our case of looking, and it shows. On the 
other hand, the perfection of technique by which we 
reduce labor is not generally intended for any spiritual- 
izing end. We don't respect a perfected technique; we 
say we're bored. Charles Baudouin says of technique that 
when it is any use it advances to close the circle of man's 
achievement where it began, at mysticism. 



25 



Here are some questions for critics to ask themselves. 
What is the combination of need and desire in the dis- 
tinction of art? Is there any sense in decorating a wall if 
the wall is not then more interesting to see? If it is tedious 
to describe the details of the construction of a blank wall, 
is the wall therefore boring to see? Can there be progress 
except toward an ideal, an end-point, and, if there is no 
progress, is there value in a thing being new? If a work is 
to be judged by arrangement with the intentions of its 
author, does the critic require the authority to make 
assurances that a work of art is intended? Can an object, 
or a fact, exist out of time and still be up-to-date? 

1966 



and preventing the surface itself from becoming too 

illusionary. 

Working with both symmetric and assymmetric formed 

pieces. 

New works have incorporated the curve. The curve 

forming the lower edge, is a segment of a circle, rather 

than an organic or eliptical curve. 

June 1966 



i-:imi\ it I i>\ 



ROBERT MANGOLD 

WORK COMMENTS 

1965-66 

Working on architectural, flat, cut-out forms of masonite- 

faced plywood. 

Began to develop certain potentialities of the spray 

technique; atmosphere like quality of sprayed surface, 

blending possibilities of color and tone. 

Gradations of tone occur at lower edge of piece, and are 

kept subtle to allow a primary total form reading, surface 

expands, dissolves. Did not use ideas that were too 

pictorial or where the gradation was too strong. 

Pieces follow in series of similar formal structures and 

similar color ranges. Oil paint thinned with turpentine is 

the medium used, because of more flexible color mixing 

and the matte open finish. 

Primarily concerned with evasive color, difficult to pin 

down or define. 

Color sequence is either (going from top to bottom), 

neutral moving into color, color moving into neutral, or 

from lighter to darker value of the same color. Where it 

is a neutral to color or color to neutral sequence, the 

value of the two tones is similar. 

Have used the 4 foot width of sheets of building material 

as a working element, a piece whose total size is 96 x 96 

inches, (2-4 foot x 8 foot sheets), would have a vertical 

division occuring in the middle, the division becoming a 

black line at this point. Chose not to allow the panel 

break to occur, except at the measured center, keeping it 

from becoming a proportional-compositional division. 

Visually the central black line gives the eye a neutral 

point to move through the surface, bringing the periphery 

line inside, preventing a too simple, total contour reading, 



I scale my painting to the maximum visual limit. If the 
painting extended outward more than twenty feet I 
would no longer see that I mean. 

Right and left symmetry are more opposite than alike. 
Repetition is different because it occurs "elsewhere". 
The subtle paradox is maddening, curious and amusing. 
By getting rid of extraneous, generalized notions I arrive 
at the leanest possible shape — a focus that allows a 
"large" picture to be seen at once. 

Simplification is not synonymous with boredom but on 
the contrary demands visual acuity. 

Summer 1966 



LARR1 KOX 

SCISSORS JACK SERIES 

Once the proportions and outside scale of the paintings 
are determined, the interior structure is established. 
Inverted V's or triangles repeat four times to become the 
structure upon which the final dimensions depend. Each 
V contains four units of space, therefore 16 units of space 
within the total painting. 

Various systems of color are used to correspond to the 
compartments of space. General arrangements of color 
are used. (Four different colors in alternating intervals, 
continuous color moving across the horizontal in fluctu- 
ating zones, sixteen color combinations separating each 
unit vertically and horizontally.) 

The SCISSOR'S JACK SERIES was executed in 1965. 
The particular choice of color was arbitrary in that colors 
were chosen at random in the execution of the paintings. 
This specific structure became dominant as a foundation 
for my work at the time. 

June 16, 1966 



Measurements in inches: Height precedes width; depth, where given, is the last figure. 



27 







Paul Feeley. Asellus. 1964. Acrylic on canvas, four canvases each 47* x 471". Lent by Betty Parsons Gallery, New York. 



28 



Agnes Martin. The City. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 71 i x 72". Lent by Robert Elkon Gallery. New York. 



29 




Will Insley. Wall at Dawn, 1963. Acrylic on masonite, 1031 x 103 i". Collection Steve Schapiro, Brooklyn Heights, New York. 




fti 



o 



a- 




o 









"So 



fts 



34 



Ralph Humphrey. Three Lines, I. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 69J x 70". Lent by Bykert Gallery, New York. 



35 




Tadaaki Kuwayama. Untitled. 1965. Acrylic on canvas with chrome stripping, two canvases each 961 x 42". Lent by the artist. 



Howard Mehring. In the Key of Blue II. 1965. Acrylic on canvas, 85i x 70". Lent by A. M. Sachs Gallery, New \ot\s.. 











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39 






o 



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41 




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cd 



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44 













Al Brunelle. Juync. 1965. Metalized cellulose acetate butyrate on wood with acrylic and crystals, six panels each 21 x 21 x 3" 

Lent bv the artist. 



45 






O 



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o 



< 



N 



i 




. , ..:.■■■. :.,.-.■ 




Frank Stella. TTolfeboro, 4. 1966. Epoxy and fluorescent alkalide on canvas, 160+ x 100 x 4". Lent by Leo Castelli Gallery, New Yorl 







Larry Poons. Mary Queen of Scots. Acrylic on canvas, 135 x 90". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert Scull, New York. 



Robert Ryman. Allied. 1966. Oil on canvas, 751 x 753". Lent by the artist. 



51 



Al Held. The Big End. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 1071 x 108i". Lent by Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York 



'-•! ;' ">*■* '''■--■:::.:. ■ ■■ J '" I ■■■■M 



Leon Smith. Correspondence Orange-Blue. 1965. Oil on canvas, 90 x 68". Lent by Galerie Chalette, New York. 



53 



T 



Jack Youngerman. Blue White Red. 1965. Polymer emulsion on canvas, 107 i x 87 i". Lent by Betty Parsons Gallery, New York. 



54 




Nichola 



s Krushenick. Tel Aviv Hippy. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 90 x 75+". Lent by Pace Gallery, New York. 



56 



II I II 1,1 III. It A I'll V 



Bibliographies: references are to one-man exhibitions, 
unless otherwise stated. Numbered exhibition entries 
mean that a catalogue was published: un-numbered 
entries mean that only an announcement was printed. 
Existing bibliographies of artists have not been duplicated. 
Key to biographies : date of birth, present residence and 
year of arrival, and New York gallery. 



4.1 \ I IE VI 



1. goossen, e. c. "The Big Canvas", Art International, 16. 
Zurich, vol. II, no. 8, 1958, pp. 45-47. 

2. tillim, Sidney. "What Happened to Geometry: An 
Inquiry into Geometrical Painting in America", Arts, 
New York, vol. 33, no. 9, June 1959, pp. 38-44. 

3. Rubin, william. "Younger American Painters'", Art In- 17. 
ternational, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 1, January 1960, pp. 24- 

31. Includes Kelly, Noland, Stella, Youngerman. 

4. David Herbert Gallery, New York, February 8-27, 1960, 18. 
Modern Classicism. Text by Barbara Butler. Includes 
Kelly, Smith. 

5. alloway, Lawrence. "On the Edge", Architectural 19. 
Design, London, vol. XXX, no. 4, April 1960, pp. 164-165. 

6. butler, Barbara. "Contemporary Classicism", Art In- 
ternational, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 5, May 25, 1960, pp. 20a 
39-40. 

American Federation of Arts, New York, October 1960- 
October 1961, Purist Painting, circulating exhibition. 20b 

Checklist, includes Kelly, Martin, Smith. 

7. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 21. 
October- December 1961, American Abstract Expres- 
sionists and Imagists. Text by H. H. Arnason. Includes 

Held, Humphrey, Kelly, Noland, Smith, Stella, Younger- 
man. Bibliography. 

8. Reviews: kroll, jack. "American Painting and the 22. 

convertible Spiral", Art News, New York, vol. 
60, no. 7, November 1961, pp. 34-37, 66-69. 

9. alloway, Lawrence. "Easel Painting at the 23a 
Guggenheim", Art International, Zurich, vol. 

V, no. 10, Christmas 1961, pp. 27-34. 

10. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, March 20- 

May 13, 1962, Geometric Abstraction in America. Text by 23b 
John Gordon. Includes Held, Kelly, Martin, Noland, 
Smith, Stella. 24. 

11. Reviews: kozloff, max. "Geometric Abstraction in 

America", Art International, Zurich, vol. VI, 
nos. 5-6, Summer 1962, pp. 98-103. 

12. michelson, annette. "L' Abstraction geome- 25. 
trique en Amerique", AA Siecle, Paris, vol. 24, 

no. 20, December 1962, supplement. 

13. ahlander, Leslie judd. "The Emerging Art of Washing- 26. 
ton", Art International, Zurich, vol. VI, no. 9, November 

25, 1962, pp. 30-33. Includes Downing, Mehring, Noland. 

14. The Jewish Museum, New York, May 19-September 15, 27. 
1963, Toward a New Abstraction. Introduction by Ben 
Heller. Includes text on Al Held by Irving Sandler; on 
Ellsworth Kelly by Henry Geldzahler; on Kenneth Noland 28. 
by Alan R. Solomon; on Frank Stella by Michael Fried. 

15. Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington D.C., 
June 6-July 7, 1963, Formalists. Introduction by Adelyn 
D. Breeskin. Includes Kelly, Kuwayama, Martin, Poons, 
Stella, Youngerman. 



The Poses Institute of Fine Arts, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts, December 1, 1963-December 6, 
1964, New Directions in American Painting, circulating 
exhibition. Text by Sam Hunter. Includes Held, Noland, 
Kelly, Smith, Stella, Youngerman. 

The Jewish Museum, New York, December 12, 1963- 
February 5, 1964, Black and JVhite. Text by Ben Heller. 
Includes Kelly, Stella, Youngerman. 
Reviews: kozloff, max. "The Many Colorations of 
Black and White", Artforum, San Francisco, 
vol. II, no. 8, February 1964, pp. 22-25. 
rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 1, February 
15, 1964, pp. 40-41. 
Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, January 9- 
February 9, 1964, Black, White and Gray. Includes 
Kelly, Martin, Stella. 
Review: judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 6, 

March 1964, p. 38. 
The University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, 
January 15-February 9, 1964, The New Formalists: 
Contemporary American Painting for Purchase Consider- 
ation. Foreword by Robert Inglehart. Includes Noland, 
Smith. 

tillim, Sidney. "The New Avant-Garde", Arts, New 
York, vol. 38, no. 5, February 1964, pp. 18-21. Includes 
Stella. 

The Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, April 23- 
June 7, 1964, Post Painterly Abstraction. Text by Cle- 
ment Greenberg. Includes Downing, Feeley, Held, Kelly, 
Krushenick, Mehring, Noland, Stella. 
Reprinted in Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 
5-6, Summer 1964, pp. 63-65. 

Review: coplans, john. "Post Painterly Abstraction: 
the Long-Awaited Greenberg Exhibition Fails 
to Make its Point", Artforum, San Francisco, 
vol. II, no. 12, Summer 1964, pp. 4-9. 
rose, Barbara. "The Primacy of Color", Art Internatio- 
nal, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 4, May 1964, pp. 22-26. 
Includes Downing, Poons, Williams. 
"New Talent USA: Newly Nominated", Art in America, 
New York, vol. 52, no. 4, August 1964, pp. 81-111. 
Includes Krushenick, Kuwayama, Poons. 
"56 Painters and Sculptors", Art in America, New York, 
vol. 52, no. 4, August 1964, pp. 22-79. Includes Held, 
Kelly, I oungerman. 

The Hudson River Museum. Yonkers, New York, 
October 11-25, 1964, 8 Young Artists. Text by E. C. 
Goossen. Includes Barry, Huot. 



57 



29. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New \ork, De- 45. 
cember 1964, The Shaped Canvas. Text by Lawrence 

Alio way. Includes Feeley, Stella, Williams. 

30. Reviews: judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 5, 

February 1965, p. 56. 46. 

31. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 

1965, p. 46. 47. 

32. tillim, Sidney. "Optical Art: Pending or Ending?", 

Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 4, January 1965, pp. 16-23. 48. 

33. Sandler, irving. "The New Cool-Art", Art in America, 
New York, vol. 53, no. 1, February 1965, pp. 96-101. 

34. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, February 23- 49. 
April 25, 1965, The Responsive Eye. Text by William C. 

Seitz. Includes Downing, Feeley, Kelly, Martin, Noland, 
Poons, Smith, Stella. 50. 

35. Review: rickey, george. "Scandale de Succes", Art 

International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May, 
1965, pp. 16-23. 

36. Loeb Student Center, New York University, New York, 51. 
April 6-29, 1965, Concrete Expressionism. Text by Irving 
Sandler. 

37. Reprinted as "Expressionism with Corners", Art News, 52. 
New York, vol. 64, no. 2, April 1965, pp. 38^0, 65-66. 
Includes Held. 

38. Reviews: lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art 53. 

International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 5, July 
1965, pp. 51-52. 

39. ashton, dore. Studio International, London, 

vol. 170, no. 868, August 1965, pp. 87-89. 54. 

40. Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, April 21-May 30, 1965, Three American 55. 
Painters: Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Frank Stella. 

Text by Michael Fried. Two parts of the introduction 
appeared earlier in slightly different form: Section I in 

41. American Scholar, vol. 33, no. 4, Autumn 1964, pp. 56. 
642-649, as "Modernist Painting and Formal Criticism" ; 
Section III as the introduction to Kenneth Noland's retro- 
spective exhibition at The Jewish Museum, New York, 57. 
February 4-March 7, 1965. 

42. lippard, lucy R. "The Third Stream", Art Voices, New 
York, vol. 4, no. 2, Spring 1965, pp. 44-49. Includes 58. 
Mangold, Ruda, Stella, Williams. 

43. "Neue Abstraktion", Das Kunstwerk, Baden-Baden, vol. 
XVIII, nos. 10-12, April-June 1965, Special number. 59. 
Introduction by Klaus Jurgen-Fischer, pp. 3-6. Includes 

Held, Kelly, Krushenick, Kuwayama, Noland, Stella. 

44. VIII Bienal of the Museum of Modern Art, Sao Paulo, 60. 
Brazil, Summer 1965. Exhibition of the United States of 
America. Text by Walter Hopps. Includes Poons, Stella. 



Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, D.C., 
June 25-September 5, 1965, The Washington Color 
Painters. Text by Gerald Nordland. Includes Downing, 
Mehring, Noland. Bibliography. 

Review: stevens, Elisabeth. "The Washington Color 
Painters", Arts, New York, vol. 40, no. 1, 
November 1965, pp. 30-33. 
Kunsthalle, Basel, June 26-September 5, 1965, Signale. 
Text by A. Riidlinger. Includes Held, Kelly, Noland. 
Review: "Basel: Signale; Ausstellung in der Kunst- 
halle", Werk, Winterthur, Switzerland, vol. 52, 
no. 8, August 1965, supplement, pp. 179-180. 
robins, corinne. "Six Artists and the New Extended 
Vision", Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10, September- 
October 1965, pp. 19-24. Includes Held. 
rose, Barbara. "The Second Generation: Academy and 
Breakthrough", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. IV, no. 1, 
September 1965, pp. 53-63. Includes Held, Kelly, 
Noland, Youngerman. 

rose, Barbara. "ABC Art", Art in America, New York, 
vol. 53, no. 5, October 1965, pp. 56-69. Statements by 
Stella, Zox. 

San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, October 15- 
November 21, 1965, Colorists 1950-1960. Includes 
Feeley, Noland, Poons, Smith, Stella, Williams. 
plessix, francine du. "Painters and Poets", Art in 
America, New York, vol. 53, no. 5, October-November 
1965, pp. 24-56. Includes drawings by Feeley, Younger- 
man. 

bourdon, david. "Park Place: New Ideas", The Village 
Voice, New York, November 25, 1965, pp. 11 + . 
bourdon, david. "E = Mc 2 a go-go; Ten Painters and 
Sculptors Form a Lively, Objective Collective in New 
York", Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 9, January 1966, 
pp. 22-25, 57-59. Park Place artists. 
welsh, Robert. "The Growing Influence of Piet Mon- 
drian", Canadian Art, 100, Toronto, vol. 23, no. 1, 
January 1966, pp. 44-49. 

lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art International, 
Lugano, vol. X, no. 1, January 20, 1966, p. 91. Includes 
Fleming, Novros, Ruda. 

"A New Abstraction: A Discussion Conducted by Bruce 
Glaser", Art International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 2, 
February 20, 1966, pp. 41-45. Includes Held. 
robins, corinne. "Four Directions at Park Place", Arts, 
New York, vol. 40, no. 8, June 1966, pp. 20-24. Includes 
Ruda, Novros. 

smithson, robert. "Entropy and the New Monuments", 
Artforum, Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 10, June 1966, 
pp. 26-31. 



58 



JO BAER 

1929. Seattle, Washington 

New York, 1960 

Fischbach Gallery, New \ ork, February 1966. 

61. Reviens: ashbery. john. Art News. New York, vol. 64, 

no. 10, February, 1966, p. 13. 

62. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 4, April 20. 
1966, p. 73. 

63. goldin. amy. Arts. New York. vol. 40, no. 6. 
April 1966. p. 69. 



ROBERT BARRY 
1936. New York 
Resident New \ork 

Westerly Gallery, New York, October 6-24, 1964. 
64. Review: stevens, Elisabeth. Art News, New York, 
vol. 63, no. 7, November 1964. p. 53. 



AL BRUNELLE 

1934, Minneapolis. Minnesota 

New York. 1962 



THOMAS DOWNING 
1928, Ivor, \ irginia 
Resident ^ ashington, D.C. 

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, June 1962. 

65. Review: sharpless, ti-grace a. Art News, New York, 

vol. 61, no. 5, September 1962. p. 16. 
Stable Gallery, New York, October 1-19, 1963. 

66. Reviews: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York. vol. 62. 

no. 6. October 1963, p. 12. 

67. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 2, 
November 1963, p. 35. 

68. rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. VII. no. 9. December 
5, 1963, p. 65. 

Stable Gallery, New York, January 5-23, 1965. 

69. Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 

no. 10, February 1965, p. 14. 

70. grossberg, Jacob. Arts, New York, vol. 39, 
no. 5, February 1965. p. 65. 

71. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 
1965, p. 51. 



PAUL FEELEY 

1913, Des Moines, Iowa 

Lived in Bennington. Vermont after 1946 

Died 1966, New York 

Bettv Parsons Gallerv. New York 



Tibor De Nagy Gallery, New \ork, February- 1958. 

72. Reviews: Campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 57, no. 1, March 1958. p. 13. 

73. dash. R. warren. Arts, New York. vol. 32. 
no. 6. March 1958, p. 60. 

74. goossen, e. c. "The End of Winter in New 
It ork", Art International. Zurich, vol. 2. 
nos. 2-3, 1958, pp. 37-38. 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 1960. 

75. Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 59. no. 3, May 1960, p. 15. ' 

76. judd, donald. Arts, New York. vol. 34. no. 8, 
May 1960, p. 60. 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 14-June 2, 1962. 

77. Reviews: campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 61, no. 4, Summer 1962, p. 17. 

78. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 10, 
September 1962, p. 47. 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 13-31, 1963. 

79. Reviews: sandler. irvixg h. Art News, New York, vol. 

62. no. 3. May 1963, p. 58. 

80. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 10, 
September 1963, p. 59. 

81. alloway, Lawrence. "Paul Feeley", Living Arts 3, Lon- 
don, 1964, pp. 26^47. Includes interview - with the artist. 
Kasmin Limited, London, Fall 1964. 

82. Review: lynton, norbert. "London Letter", Art Inter- 

national, Lugano, vol. 8, no. 10, December 

1964, pp. 44-45. 
Bettv Parsons Gallerv. New \ ork. October 27-November 
21, 1964. 

83. Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 

no. 8, December 1964, p. 14. 

84. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 3, 
December 1964, p. 69. 

85. rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational. Luaano. vol. 8. no. 10. December 

1964, p. 50. 

86. goossen, e. c. "Paul Feeley", Art International, Lugano, 
vol. 8, no. 10, December 1964, pp. 31-33. 

Betty Parsons Gallery. New \ork, December 7-31, 1965. 

87. Reviews: Art News. New York, vol. 64. no. 8. December 

1965. p. 14. 

88. glueck, grace. Art in America, New York, 
vol. 53, no. 6, December 1965, p. 124. 

89. baro, gene. "Paul Feeley: The Art of the Definite", Arts, 
New 7 York, vol. 40, no. 4, February 1966, pp. 19-25. 



DEAN FLEMING 

1933. Santa Monica. California 

New York, 1961 

Park Place Gallery, New \ ork 

Park Place Gallery, New York, December 19, 1965- 
January 20, 1966. Dean Fleming and Anthony Magar. 

90. Revieivs: bourdon, david. "Parallelogram Backflip", 

The Village Voice, New \ork, December 23, 
1965, p. 12. 

91. berrigan, ted. Art News, New York, vol. 64. 
no. 10, February 1966, p. 15. 

92. adrian. dennis, "New York", Artforum, Los 
Angeles, vol. IV, no. 7, March 1966, p. 52. 



59 



93. berkson, william. Arts, New York, vol. 40, 
no. 5, March 1966, p. 60. 

94. FLEMING, DEAN, PETER FORAKIS, PHYLLIS YAMPOLSKY. 

Grope, New York, January 1964, vol. 1, no. 1, Ergo-Suit 
Productions, Tibor de Nagy Editions. 

95. "New Talent USA", Art in America, New York, vol. 54, 
no. 4, July-August, 1966, p. 45 . Selected by Larry 
Aldrich. Statement by the artist. 

96. FLEMING, DEAN, PHYLLIS yampolsky. The Blown Mind, 
New York, New York Express, 1966. 



111. Galerie Renee Ziegler, Zurich, October 2-30, 1964. Text 
by Harald Szeemann. 

112. Review: H.C. Werk, Winterthur, Switzerland, vol. 51, 

no. 12, supplement, p. 292, December 1964. 

113. baigell, matthew. "American Abstract Expressionism 
and Hard Edge: Some Comparisons", Studio Inter- 
national, London, vol. 171, no. 873, January 1966, pp. 
10-15. 



PETER GOURFAIN 

1934, Chicago, Illinois 
New York, 1961 

Bridge Gallery, New York, March 9-27, 1965. Peter 
Gourfain and David Lee. 

97. Reviews: waldman, diane. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 1, March 1965, p. 15. 

98. judd, donald. "New York Notes", Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May 1965, 
p. 65. 

99. hoene, anne. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 9, 
May-June, 1965, p. 64. 



AL HELD 

1928, New York 

Resident New York 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York 

Poindexter Gallery, New York, January 1959. 

100. Reviews: sandler, irving h. Art News, New York, vol. 

57, no. 9, January 1959, p. 17. 

101. b.d.h. Arts, New York, vol. 33, no. 5, February 
1959, p. 64. 

Poindexter Gallery, New York, January 18-February 6, 
1960. 

102. Reviews: crehan, Hubert. Art News, New York, vol. 

58, no. 9, January 1960, p. 15. 

103. dennison, george. Arts, New York, vol. 34, 
no. 4, January 1960, p. 58. 

Poindexter Gallery, New York, May 1-20, 1961. 

104. Review: sandler, irving h. Art News, New York, vol. 

60, no. 3, May 1961, p. 15. 

105. "New Talent USA", Art in America, New York, vol. 50, 
no. 1, 1962, p. 26. Chosen by Richard Brown Baker and 
Dorothy Gees Seckler. 

Poindexter Gallery, New York, November 13-December 
1, 1962. 

106. Reviews: sandler, irving h. Art News, New York, vol. 

61, no. 8, December 1962, p. 14. 

107. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 4, 
January 1963, p. 47. 

108. sandler, irving. "New York Letter", Quad- 
rum, Brussels, no. 14, 1963, pp. 121-122. 

109. sandler, irving. "Al Held paints a picture", Art News, 
New York, vol. 63, no. 3, May 1964, pp. 42-15, 51. 

110. ashton, dore. "Al Held, New Spatial Experiences", 
Studio International, London, vol. 168, no. 859, Novem- 
ber 1964, pp. 210-213. 



RALPH HUMPHREY 

1932, Youngstown, Ohio 

New York, 1956 

Bykert Gallery, New York 

Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, February 3-21, 1959. 

114. Review: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 57, no. 10, February 1959, p. 17. 
Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, February 2-21, 1960. 

115. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 58, no. 10, February 1960, p. 14. 

116. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 6, 
March 1960, p. 54. 

Mayer Gallery, New York, May 1961. 

117. Review: sandler, irving. Art News, New York, vol. 60, 

no. 3, May 1961, p. 15. 
Green Gallery, New York, May 5-29, 1965. 

118. Reviews: levine, neil a. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 4, Summer 1965, p. 16. 

119. goldin, amy. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10, 
September-October 1965, p. 66. 



ROBERT HUOT 

1935, Staten Island 

Resident New York 

Stephen Radich Gallery, New York 

Stephen Radich Gallery, New York, May 4-30, 1964. 

120. Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 

no. 4, Summer 1964, p. 59. 

121. fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, 
Summer 1964, p. 82. 

122. Vassar College Art Gallery, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 
New York, May 4-31, 1964. New Directions 1964. Text 
by Linda Nochlin. 

Stephen Radich Gallery, New York, March 9-April 3. 
1965. 

123. Reviews: berkson, william. Arts, New York, vol 39, 

no. 9, May 1965, p. 68. 

124. gablik, suzi. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 
no. 3, May 1965, p. 46. 

125. judd, donald. "New York Notes", Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May 1965, 
p. 65. 

126. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, 
no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 111. 

Stephen Radich Gallery, New York, March 15-April 2, 
1966. 

127. Review: burton, scott. Art News, New York, vol. 65, 

no. 2, April 1966, p. 16. 



60 



WILL INSLEY 
1929. Indianapolis. Indiana 
New York, 1957 
Stable Gallery, New "York- 
Stable Gallery, New York. .May 11-29, 1965 

128. Reviews: edgar, Natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 3. May 1965, p. 18. 

129. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 6, Sep- 
tember 20, 1965, p. 59. 

130. hoene, anne. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10. 
September-October 1965, p. 68. 

Stable Gallery, New York. April 12-30, 1966. 

131. Review: BURTON, SCOTT. Art News, New York, vol. 65, 

no. 2. April 1966, p. 16. 



ELLSWORTH KELLY 
1923, Newburgb, New York 
New York, 1954 
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 21-June 9. 1956. 

132. Reviews: butler, Barbara. Arts, New York, vol. 30, 

no. 9, June 1956, p. 52. 

133. tyler. parker. Art News, New York, vol. 55. 
no. 4, June 1956, p. 51. 

134. W hitney Museum of American Art, New York, February 
27-April 4, 1957, Young America 1957. Edited by 
John I. H. Baur and Rosalind Irvine. 

Bettv Parsons Gallerv, New \ork. September 23-October 
12. 1957. 

135. Reviews: S.B. Arts, New York, vol. 32, no. 1. October 

1957, p. 56. 

136. tyler, parker. Art News, New York, vol. 56, 
no. 6, October 1957, p. 17. 

137. Galerie Maeght, Paris, October 24, 1958. Article by 
E. C. Goossen, "Ellsworth Kelly", Derriere le Miroir, 
Paris, A. Maeght, no. 110, 1958. ' 

Bettv Parsons Gallerv. New York. October 19-November 
7, 1959. 

138. Revieivs: Campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 58, no. 6. October 1959, p. 13. 

139. tillim, Sidney. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 1, 
October 1959, pp. 48-50. 

140. ashton, dore. Arts and Architecture, Los 
Angeles, vol. 76, no. 12, December 1959. p. 7. 

141. tillim, Sidney. "Profiles: Ellsworth Kellv", Arts Year- 
book 3, New York, 1959, pp. 148-151. 

142. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, December 16, 
1959-February 14, 1960, Sixteen Americans. Introduction 
by Dorothy C. Miller. Statement by the artist. 

143. seuphor, michel. "Sens et Permanence de la Peinture 
Construite", Quadrum, Brussels, no. 8, 1960. p. 52. 

144. Arthur Tooth and Sons, Ltd., London, January 24- 
February 18, 1961, 6 American Abstract Painters. Text 
by Lawrence Alloway. Includes Kelly, Martin, Smith. 
Bettv Parsons Gallerv, New ^1 ork, October 16-November 
4, 1961. 

145. Reviews: sandler, irving h. Art News, New York, vol. 

60, no. 8, November 1961, p. 13. 

146. tillim, Sidney. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 3, 
December 1961, p. 48. 

147. seckler, dorothy gees. "American Art International: 
Gallery Notes", Art in America, New York, vol. 49, no. 2. 



1961, pp. 88-89. 

148. ashton, dore. "Art USA 1962". Studio, London, vol. 
163, no. 827, March 1962, p. 89. 

149. alloway, Lawrence. "Heraldry and Sculpture", Art 
International, Zurich, vol. YI, no. 3. April 1962. pp. 
52-53. 

150. Arthur Tooth and Sons, Ltd., London, May 29-June 23, 

1962. Text by Lawrence Alloway. Original layout by Kelly. 

151. RUBIN, WILLIAM. "Ellsworth Kelly: the Big Form", Art 
News, New York, vol. 62, no. 7, November 1963. pp. 
32-35. 

Bettv Parsons Gallerv, New York, October 29-November 
23, 1963. 

153. Review: fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art 

International, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 10, 
January 16, 1964, p. 54. 

154. W ashington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, D.C., 
December 11, 1963-January 26, 1964, Paintings, Sculp- 
ture and Drawings. Includes an "Interriew with Ellsworth 
Kelly" by Henry Geldzahler, November 1963. 

155. Reprinted in Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 1, 
February 15. 1964, pp. 47-48. 

156. kramer, hilton. '"Realists" and Others", Arts, New- 
York, vol. 38, no. 4, January 1964, p. 22. 

157. johnson, philip. "Young Artists at the Fair", Art in 
America, New York, vol. 52, no. 4, August 1964, p. 121. 
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, April 6-May 1, 1965. 

158. Revieivs: barnitz. Jacqueline. Arts, New York, vol. 39. 

nos. 8-9, May 1965, p. 58. 

159. levin, kim. Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 3. 
May 1965, p. 10. 

160. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, 
no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 108. 

161. ashton, dore. Studio International, London, 
vol. 170, no. 867, July 1965, pp. 40-42. 

162. michelson, annette. "Paris Letter", Art International, 
Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 1965, p. 39. 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, March 15, 1966. 

163. Review: von meier, kurt. "Los Angeles Letter", Art 

International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 5, May 1966. 
pp. 58-59. 

164. "Four Drawings: Ellsworth Kelly", Artforum, Los 
Angeles, vol. IV, no. 6, February 1966, pp. 40-41. 



NICHOLAS KRUSHENICK 
1929, New York 
Resident New York 
Pace Gallery, New \ ork 

Camino Gallery, New York, May 1956. John and Nicholas 
Krushenick. 

165. Review: tyler, parker. "Brothers Krushenick at 

Camino", Art News, New York, vol. 55, no. 3, 

May 1956, p. 57. 
Camino Gallerv, New York. January 25-Februarv 14, 
1957. 

166. Reviews: tyler, parker. Art News, New York. vol. 55, 

no. 10, February 1957, p. 51. 

167. young, vernon. Arts, New York, vol. 31. no. 5. 
February 1957, p. 65. 

Brata Gallery, New York, November 1958. 

168. Revieiv: burckhardt, edith. Art News, New lork. 

vol. 57, no. 7, November 1958. p. 17. 
Brata Gallery. Yew York, October 7-27, 1960. 

169. Reviews: beck, james h. Art Neivs, New York, vol. 59, 



61 



no. 6, October 1960, p. 15. 

170. raynor, vivien, Arts, New York, vol. 35, 
no. 1, October 1960, p. 66. 

Graham Gallery, New York, September 18-October 6, 
1962. 

171. Reviews: edgar, Natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 61, 

no. 5, September 1962, p. 12. 

172. tillim, Sidney. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 1, 
October 1962, p. 53. 

173. ashton, dore. Studio, London, vol. 164, no. 
836, December 1962, p. 248. 

Graham Gallery, New York, March 31-April 25, 1964. 

174. Reviews: benedikt, michael. Art News, New York, vol. 

63, no. 2, April 1964, p. 13. 

175. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 9, 
May 1964, p. 33. 

176. rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, Summer 
1964, p. 78. 

177. Fischbach Gallery, New York, April 6-24, 1965. Text by 
Robert Rosenblum. 

178. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 64, no. 2, April 1965, p. 17. 

179. raynor, vivien. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 9, 
May 1965, p. 65. 

180. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, 
no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 111. 

181. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter": Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 6, Sep- 
tember 20, 1965, p. 58. 



TADAAKI KUWAYAMA 
1932, Nagoya, Japan 
New York, 1958 

Green Gallery, New York, January 10-February 4, 1961. 

182. Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 59, no. 9, January 1961, p. 18. 

183. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 4, 
January 1961, p. 55. 

Green Gallery, New York, February 20-March 10, 1962. 

184. Reviews: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 60, 

no. 10, February 1962, p. 53. 

185. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 7, 
April 1962, p. 54. 

Kornblee Gallery, New York, April 14-May 2, 1964. 

186. Reviews: castile, rand. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 

no. 2, April 1964, p. 13. 

187. barnitz, Jacqueline. Art Voices, New York, 
vol. 3, no. 4, April-May 1964, p. 30. 

188. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 10, 
Summer 1964, p. 68. 

Southampton East Gallery, New York, June 1964. 
Tadaaki Kuwayama, Lil Picard, Rakuka Naito. 

189. Reviews: brown, Gordon. Art Voices, New York, vol. 3, 

no. 5, June 1964, p. 12. 

190. swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 
no. 4, Summer 1964, p. 17. 

John Daniels Gallery, New York, April 6-May 1, 1965. 

191. Reviews: levine, neil a. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 3, May 1965, p. 15. 

192. grossberg, jacob. Arts, New York, vol. 39, 
no. 10, September-October 1965, p. 74. 



DAVID LEE 

1937, Charlottesville, Virginia 
New York, 1960 

Bridge Gallery, New York, February 11-29, 1964. 

193. Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 63, no. 1, March 1964, p. 14. 

194. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 7, 
April 1964, p. 34. 

Bridge Gallery, New York, March 9-27, 1965. David Lee 
and Peter Gourfain. 

195. Reviews: waldman, diane. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 1, March 1965, p. 15. 

196. judd, donald. "New York Notes", Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May 1965, p. 
65. 

197. hoene, anne. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 9, 
May-June 1965, p. 64. 



ROBERT MANGOLD 

1937, North Tonawanda, New York 

New York, 1962 

Fischbach Gallery, New York 

Thibaut Gallery, New York, January 4-25, 1964. 

198. Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 62, no. 9, January 1964, p. 19. 

199. Harrison, jane. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 6, 
March 1964, p. 67. 

200. lippard, lucy r. "New York", Artforum, San Francisco, 
vol. II, no. 9, March 1964, p. 19. 

201. Fischbach Gallery, New York, October 12-30, 1965. 
Robert Mangold: Walls and Areas, text by Lucy R. 
Lippard. 

202. Reviews: Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 5, October 

1965, p. 10. 

203. benedikt, michael. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, nos. 9-10, 
December 20, 1965, p. 41. 

204. berkson, william. Arts, New York, vol. 40, 
no. 2, December 1965, p. 65. 



AGNES MARTIN 

1921, Maklin, Canada 

Resident New York 

Robert Elkon Gallery, New York 

Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, December 
2-20, 1958. 

205. Reviews: burckhardt, edith. Art News, New York, 

vol. 57, no. 8, December 1958, p. 17. 

206. ventura, anita. Arts, New York, vol. 33, no. 4, 
January 1959, p. 59. 

Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, December 
29-January 16, 1960. 

207. Reviews: b.b. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 4, January 

1960, p. 50. 

208. campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 
vol. 58, no. 9, January 1960, p. 16. 

See bibliography no. 144. 



62 



Bettv Parsons Gallery, New York, September 25-October 
14, 1961. 

209. Review: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 60, 226. 

no. 6, October 1961, p. 11. 
Robert Elkon Gallery. New York, November 27-Decem- 227. 
ber 15, 1962. 

210. Reviews: beck, james h. Art News, New York, vol. 61, 228. 

no. 9, January 1963, p. 13. 

211. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 5, 
January 1963, p. 48. 229. 

Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, November 12-30, 1963. 

212. Reviews: lonngren, lillian. Art News, New York, 230. 

vol. 62, no. 8, December 1963, p. 52. 

213. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 4, 231. 
January 1964, p. 33. 

214. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, 232. 
no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 110. 

Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, April 10-30, 1965. 

215. Reviews: Johnston, jill. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 2, April 1965, p. 10. 

216. berkson, william, Arts, New York, vol. 39, 233. 
no. 9, May 1965, p. 66. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, December 14, 234. 
1965-January 8, 1966. 

217. Review: snyder, susan r. "Los Angeles", Artforum, 235. 

Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 6, February 1966, 
p. 15. 



236. 

HOWARD MEHRING 
1931, Washington D.C. 
Resident Washington, D.C. 
A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York 



11-February 15, 1963, Three New American Painters: 
Louis, Noland, Olitski. Text by Clement Greenberg. 
Reprinted as "Three American Painters", Canadian Art, 
Ottawa, vol. XX, no. 3, May-June 1963, pp. 172-175. 
rose, Barbara. "Kenneth Noland", Art International, 
Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, Summer 1964, pp. 58-61. 
XXXII International Biennial Exhibition of Art, United 
States Pavilion, Venice, June 20-October 18, 1964. 
Text by Alan R. Solomon, pp. 275-276. 
The Jewish Museum, New York, February 4-March 7, 
1965, Kenneth Noland. Text by Michael Fried. 
Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 
vol. 64, no. 1, March 1965, p. 12. 
judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 6, 
March 1965, p. 54. 

judd, donald. "New York Letter", Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 3, April 1965, 
p. 74. 
Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York, November 10-28, 
1964. 

Reviews: kozloff, max. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 4, 
January 1965, p. 48. 

ashton, dore. Studio International, London, 
vol. 169, no. 862, February 1965, p. 92. 
lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 1, February 

1965, pp. 34-35. 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York, February 22- 
March 13, 1966. 

Revieu): lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 4, April 20, 

1966, p. 74. 



218. ahlander, Leslie judd. "An Artist Speaks: Howard 
Mehring", Washington Post, Washington, September 2, 
1962, p. 67. 

A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York, April 27-May 15, 1965. 

219. Reviews: berrigan, ted. Art News, New York, vol. 64, 

no. 3, May 1965, p. 16. 

220. hoene, anne. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10, 
September-October 1965, p. 65. 

221. benedikt, michael. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 6, Sep- 
tember 20, 1965, p. 61. 

A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York, April 19-May 7, 1966. 

222. Review: waldman, diane. Art News, New York, vol. 65, 

no. 4, Summer 1966, p. 13. 



DAVID NOVROS 

1941, Los Angeles, California 

New York, 1964 

Park Place Gallery, New York 

Park Place Gallery, New York, January 23-February 24, 
1966. David. Novros, Mark di Suvero and Dean Fleming. 

237. Reviews: ashbery, john. Art News, New York, vol. 65, 

no. 1, March 1966, p. 13. 

238. Adrian, dennis. "New York", Artforum, Los 
Angeles, vol. IV, no. 8, April 1966, p. 48. 



KENNETH NOLAND 

1924, Asheville, North Carolina 
From Washington to New York 1961 
Lives South Shaltsbury, Vermont 
Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York 

For a full bibliography see no. 229. 

223. greenberg, clement. "Louis and Noland", Art Inter- 
national, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 5, May I960, pp. 26-29. 

224. greenberg, clement. "After Abstract Expressionism", 
Art International, Zurich, vol. VI, no. 8, October 25, 
1962, pp. 24-32. 

225. Norman Mackenzie Art Gallery, Regina, Canada, January 



LARRY POONS 

1937, Tokyo, Japan 

New York, 1938 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

Green Gallery, New York, November 4-23, 1963. 

239. Reviews: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 62, 

no. 7, November 1963, p. 19. 

240. fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 10, January 
16, 1964, p. 55-56. 

241. Harrison, jane. Arts, New York, vol. 38, 
no. 4, January 1964, p. 31. 

242. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Sep- 
tember-October 1964, American Drawings. Text by 
Lawrence Alloway. 



63 



243. Review: judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no 

November 1964, p. 59. 
Green Gallery, New York, February 10-March 6, 1965. 

244. Reviews: baker, Elizabeth c. Art News, New York, 

vol. 64, no. 1, March 1965, p. 12. 

245. judd, donald. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 3, April 1965, 
pp. 74-75. 

246. tillim, Sidney. "The Dotted Line", Arts, New York, 
vol. 39, no. 5, February 1965, pp. 16-21. 

247. JOHNSON, E. H. "Three Young Americans: Hinman, 
Poons, Williams", Oberlin College Bulletin, Oberlin 
College, Oberlin, Ohio, vol. 22, no. 3, Spring 1965, 
pp. 82-86. 

248. Reprinted with minor changes as "Three New, Cool, 
Bright, Imagists", Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 42, 
Summer 1965, pp. 42-44, 62-64. 

249. kozloff, max. "Larry Poons", Artforum, San Francisco, 
vol. 3, no. 7, April 1965, pp. 26-29. 

250. coplans, JOHN. "Larry Poons", Artforum, San Francisco, 
vol. 3, no. 9, June 1965, pp. 33-35. 



EDWIN RUDA 

1922, New York 

Resident New York 

Park Place Gallery, New York 



251. 



252. 



253. 



254. 



Feiner Gallery, New York, March 9-April 6, 1963. 
Review: sharpless, ti-grace a. Art News, New York, 

vol. 62, no. 2, April 1963, p. 56. 
Globe Gallery, New York, April 10-May 6, 1962. 
Review: edgar, Natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 61, 

no. 4, Summer 1962, p. 58. 
Great Jones Gallery, New York, May 3-20, 1960. Spoerri, 
Kim, Forakis, Ruda. 
Review: Schuyler, james. Art News, New York, vol. 

59, no. 3, May 1960, p. 20. 
Park Place Gallery, New York, May 8-June 9, 1966. 
Edwin Ruda and Peter Forakis. 
Review: schjeldahl, peter. Art News, New York, 

vol. 65, no. 4, Summer 1966, p. 14. 



ROBERT RYMAN 

1930, Nashville, Tennessee 

New York, 1952 



2, 257. Review: tyler, parker. Art News, New York, vol. 55, 
no. 8, December 1956, p. 11. 
Camino Gallery, New York, January 24-February 13, 
1958. 

258. Review: ashbery, john. Art News, New York, vol. 56, 
no. 9, January 1958, p. 19. 

Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, November 
10-29, 1958. 

259. Reviews: burckhardt, edith. Art News, New York, 
vol. 57, no. 7, November 1958, p. 16. 

260. b. b. Arts, New York, vol. 33, no. 2, November 
1958, p. 58. 

Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, February 
9-27, 1960. 

261. Reviews: a. s., Art News, New York, vol. 58, no. 10, 
February 1960, p. 15. 

262. mott, helen de. Arts, New York, vol. 34, 
no. 5, February 1960, p. 67. 

263. "Leon Polk Smith", Quadrum, Brussels, no. 12, 1961, 
pp. 150-151. 

See bibliography no. 144. 
Stable Gallery, New York, January 2-20, 1962. 

264. Reviews: raynor, vivien. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 5, 
February 1962, p. 41. 

265. swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 60, 
no. 10, February 1962, p. 12. 

266. ashton, dore. "New York Commentary", 
Studio, London, vol. 163, no. 828, April 1962, 
p. 157. 

267. gray, cleve. "The Artist in America: Anniversary 
Album", Art in America, New York, vol. 51, no. 1, 
February 1963, pp. 64, 76, 81. 
Stable Gallery, New York, March 12-April 6, 1963. 

268. Reviews: Campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York, 
vol. 62, no. 1, March 1963, p. 14. 

269. tillim, Sidney. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 9, 
May 1963, p. 107. 

270. alloway, Lawrence. "Leon Smith: New Work and Its 
Origin", Art International. Lugano, vol. VII, no. 4, 
April 25, 1963, pp. 51-53. 

271. brown, Gordon. "International Art Trends: U.S.A.: The 
Purists", Art Voices, New York, vol. 2, no. 5, May 1963, 
p. 19. 

272. "A Conversation between Leon Polk Smith and d'Arcy 
Hayman", Art and Literature, Lausanne, no. 3, Autumn- 
Winter 1964, pp. 82-103. 

Galerie Chalette, New York, October 2-November 31, 
1965. 

273. Reviews: goldin, amy. Arts, New York, vol. 40, no. 1, 
November 1965, p. 57. 

274. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. X, no. 1, January 20, 
1966, p. 92. 

275. smith, leon. Portfolio of Draivings, Galerie Chalette, 
New York, 1965. 



255. 



256. 



LEON POLK SMITH 
1906, Chickasha, Oklahoma 
New York, 1950 
Galerie Chalette, New York 

Mills College of Education Gallery, New York, November 

22-December, 1955. 

Reviews: mellow, james r. Arts, New York, vol. 30, 

no. 3, December 1955, p. 54. 

tyler, parker. Arts News, New York, vol. 54, 

no. 9, January 1956, p. 68. 
Camino Gallery, New York, December 1956. 



FRANK STELLA 

1936, Maiden, Massachusetts 

New York, 1958 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

276. "Three Young Americans", Oberlin College Bulletin, 
Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, vol. 17, no. 1, Fall 1959, 
pp. 18-19. 



See bibliography no. 142. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, September 27-October 

15, 1960. 

277. Reviews: mott, helen de. Arts, New York, vol. 35, no. 1, 

October 1960, p. 64. 

278. Petersen, valerie. Art Neivs, New York, 
vol. 59, no. 7, November 1960, p. 17. 

279. sandler, irving H. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 9, Decem- 
ber 1, 1960, pp. 25-26. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, April 28-May 19, 1962. 

280. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, 

vol. 61, no. 4, Summer 1962, p. 17. 

281. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 10, 
September 1962, p. 51. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, October 16-November 7, 
1962. Frank Stella and John Chamberlain. 

282. Reviews: ashton, dore. Das Kunstwerk, Baden-Baden, 

vol. XVI, nos. 5-6, November 1962, p. 69. 

283. fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Zurich, vol. VI, no. 9, Novem- 
ber 1962, pp. 54-55. 

284. raynor, vivien. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 3, 
December 1962, p. 46. 

285. sandler, irving h. Art News, New York, vol. 
61, no. 8, December 1962, p. 54. 

286. Gottlieb, carla. "Pregnant Woman, the Flag, the Eye: 
Three New Themes in Twentieth Century Art", Journal 
of Aesthetics, Cleveland, vol. 21, no. 2, Winter 1962, p. 181 . 
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, Januarv 4-February 6, 
1963. 

287. Revieiv: ashton, dore. Studio, London, vol. 165, no. 

838, February 1963, p. 67. 
Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, February 18, 1963. 

288. Reviews: langsner, jules. "Los Angeles Letter", Art 

International, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 3, March 
25, 1963, p. 75. 

289. factor, donald. "Los Angeles", Artforum, 
San Francisco, vol. 1, no. 11, May 1963, p. 44. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, January 4-30, 1964. 

290. Review: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 62, 

no. 10, February 1964, p. 11. 

291. lippard, lucy r. "New York", Artforum, San 
Francisco, vol. II, no. 9, March 1964, p. 19. 

292. fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 3, April 
25, 1964, p. 59. 

293. kozloff, max. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 3, April 25, 
1964, p. 64. 

See bibliography no. 227. 

Kasmin Limited, London, September 29-October 24, 

1964. 

294. Reviews: lynton, norbert. "London Letter", Art In- 

ternational, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 10, Decem- 
ber 1964, pp. 44-^5. 

295. BARO, gene. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 4, 
January 1965, p. 73. 

296. judd, donald, "Local Historv", Arts Yearbook 7, New 
York 1964, pp. 22-35. 

297. "A Portfolio of Recent Paintings", Arts Yearbook 7, New 
York, 1964, p. 61. 

298. leider, philip. "Small but Select", Frontier, Los Angeles, 
vol. 16, no. 5, March 1965, pp. 21-22. 

299. rosenblum, Robert. "Frank Stella: Five Years of Varia- 
tion on an 'Irreductible' Theme", Artforum, San Fran- 
cisco, vol. Ill, no. 6, March 1965, pp. 21-25. 



300. leider, philip. "Frank Stella", Artforum, San Francisco, 
vol. Ill, no. 9, June 1965, pp. 24-26. 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, January 26, 1965. 

301. Review: marmer, nancy. "Los Angeles Letter", Art 

International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May 
1965, pp. 43^4. 

302. kozloff, max in The Critic and the Visual Arts, New 
York, A.F.A., 1965, pp. 46-54. Paper given at A.F.A. 
52nd Biennial Convention, Boston. 

303. Reprinted as "Critical Schizophrenia and the Intentionalist 
Method", The New Art, edited by Gregory Battcock, 
New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1966, pp. 123-135. 
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, March 5-29, 1966. 

304. Reviews: kozloff, max. The Nation, New York, vol. 

202, no. 13, March 28, 1966, p. 370-372. 

305. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, Switzerland, vol. X, 
no. 10, Summer 1966, p. 113. 



NEIL WILLIAMS 

1934, Bluff, Utah 
New York, 1959 
Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York 

Green Gallery, New York, May 6-30, 1964. 

306. Reviews: fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art In- 

ternational, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, 
Summer 1964, p. 82. 

307. Johnston, jill. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 
no. 4, Summer 1964, p. 17. 

308. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 10, 
September 1964, p. 62. 

See bibliography no. 247 and no. 248. 

309. lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art International, 
Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 1965, pp. 46+ . 

Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, February 15-AIarch 12, 1966. 

310. Revieivs: factor, don. "Los Angeles", Artforum, Los 

Angeles, vol. IV, no. 8, April 1966, p. 14. 

311. von meier, kurt. "Los Angeles Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 5, May 1966, 
p. 58. 



JACK YOUNGERMAN 

1926, Louisville, Kentucky 

New York, 1956 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New \ ork 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, March 10-28, 1958. 

312. Reviews: dash. r. warren. Arts. New York, vol. 36, 

no. 6, March 1958, p. 57. 

313. schuyler, james. Art News, New York, vol. 
57, no. 1, March 1958, p. 16. 

314. "New Talent USA", Art in America, New York, vol. 47, 
no. 1, Spring 1959, p. 47. 

See bibliography no. 142. 

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, January 11-30, 1960. 

315. Reviews: a. s. Art News, New York, vol. 58, no. 10, 

February 1960, p. 14. 

316. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 5, 
February 1960, p. 59. 

317. ashton, dore. Arts and Architecture, Los 



65 



Angeles, vol. 77, no. 3, March 1960, p. 35. 
Bettv Parsons Gallery, New York, March 31-April 25, 
1964. 

318. Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 

no. 3, May 1964, p. 15. 

319. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 9, 
May-June 1964, p. 37. 

320. rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, 
Summer 1964, p. 78. 

321. benedikt, MICHAEL. " Youngerman : Liberty in Limits", 
Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 5, September 1965, 
pp. 43-45, 54-55. 

Betty Parsons and Byron Galleries, New York, Sep- 
tember 28-October 23, 1965. (paintings and drawings 
respectively) 

322. Reviews: goldin, amy. Arts, New York, vol. 40, no. 1, 

November 1965, p. 58. 

323. ashton. dore. Studio International, London, 
vol. 170, no. 872, December 1965, p. 250. 

324. berkson, william. Arts, New York, vol. 40, 
no. 2, December 1965, p. 51. 

325. lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 1, January 
20, 1966, p. 92. 

326. Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts, No- 
vember 4, 1965-January 2, 1966. Paintings and Drawings 
by Jack Youngerman. Text by Daniel Catton Rich. 

327. rose, Barbara. "An Interview with Jack Youngerman", 
Artforum, Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 5, January 1966, 
pp. 27-30. 



338. 



339. 



no. 1, March 1966, p. 66. 

krauss, ROSALIND. "New York", Artforum, 

Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 8, April 1966, p. 48. 

kollmar, richard. Games, New York, A Lines Book, 

1966. Cover bv Zox. 



LAWRENCE ZOX 
1936, Des Moines, Iowa 
New York, 1958 
Kornblee Gallery, New York 



American Gallery, New York, May 1962. 

328. Review: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 61, 

no. 5, September 1962, p. 16. 
Kornblee Gallery, New York, February 4-22, 1964. 

329. Reviews: judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 6, 

February 1964, p. 71. 

330. levin, kim. Art News, New York, vol. 62, no. 
10, February 1964, p. 19. 

331. rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art In- 
ternational, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, 
Summer 1964, p. 80. 

Kornblee Gallery, New York, February 20-March 11, 
1965. 

332. Reviews: Johnston, jill. Art News, New York, vol. 63, 

no. 10, February 1965, p. 14. 

333. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, 
no. 1, Winter 1965, p. 103. 

334. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 
1965, p. 61. 

335. raynor, vivien, Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 7, 
April 1965, p. 66. 

Kornblee Gallerv, New York, Januarv 8-February 3, 
1966. 

336. Reviews: berkson, william. Arts, New York, vol. 40, 

no. 5, March 1966, p. 53. 

337. berrigan, ted. Art News, New York, vol. 61, 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS 

All photographs except the following were made by Robert E. Mates and Paul Katz: 

Oliver Baker Associates, New \ork: p. 13 

Geoffrey Clements, New \ork: pp. 32, 46 

John A. Ferrari, Brooklyn: p. 51 

Jonathan Holstein, New York: p. 53 

Edward Kasper, New York: pp. 14. 15 

Marion F. Mecklenburg, Washington, D.C.: p. 37 

Robert Murray, New York: p. 48 

Hans Namuth, New York: p. 12 

0. E. Nelson, New York: p. 52 

Eric Pollitzer, Garden City Park, New York: pp. 29, 41, 50 

\\ alter Rosenblum, Long Island City, New York: p. 33 

Walter J. Russell. New York: p. 12 



THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 



STAFF 



Director 



Thomas M. Messer 



Curator Lawrence Alloway 

Associate Curator Louise Averill Svendsen 

Research Fellows Diane Waldman and Rose-Carol W ashton 

Librarian Mary Joan Hall 



Public Affairs 
Membership 
Registrar 
Conservation 
Photography- 
Custodian 



Everett Ellin 

Carol Tormey 

Alice Hildreth Goldman 

Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein 

Robert E. Mates 

Jean Xceron 



Business Administrator 



Glenn H. Easton, Jr. 



Administrative Assistant 
Office Manager 
Purchasing Agent 
Sales Supervisor 
Building Superintendent 
Head Guard 



Viola H. Gleason 
Agnes R. Connolly 
Elizabeth M. Funghini 
Judith E. Stern 
Peter G. Loggin 
Fred C. Mahnken 



Exhibition 66/4 September-November, 1966 

2,000 copies of this catalogue 

designed by Herbert Matter 

have been printed by Joh. Enschede en Zonen, Haarlem, Holland 

in August 1966 

for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

on the occasion of the exhibition 

"Systemic Painting" 



THE SOI 0>I0\ II. i.l 4.4.IMItl>l MISIIM 



■ 071 FIFTH AVKM K. XKW VOIIK 1 002»